Heart Attack: Prevention, Remedy 2023

Heart Attack

A heart attack is a silent killer. It can strike anyone at any time. Irregular lifestyle, lack of exercise, unhealthy diet, and increased risk of heart attack. Knowing its symptoms can save a life. It is said that heart attack or heart disease is responsible for one-third of deaths worldwide.

What is a heart attack?

Covering the surface of the heart are the coronary arteries, through which the soul receives nutrients and oxygen. When fat accumulates in the coronary artery and blood clots (100 percent) stop the flow of blood in the blood vessels, various changes are made in the muscle of the part of the heart that receives nutrients and oxygen through the blood vessel, which we call a heart attack. 

Although a heart attack occurs suddenly, it manifests as an ongoing disease process with atherosclerotic changes in the coronary arteries over a long period. So deadly, this disease is sometimes called the silent killer. However, the patient can regain a new life with a timely diagnosis and proper treatment.

Risks of heart attack

Some heart attack risks are controllable. Again, some chances are out of control—for example, a family history of heart disease.

Risks

▪︎ Excess fat in the coronary arteries

▪︎ Diabetes mellitus

▪︎ High blood pressure

▪︎ Smoking

▪︎ Body weight gain

▪︎ Family history of heart disease

▪︎ Physical inactivity

▪︎ Stress

▪︎ Female birth control pills, etc.

Smoking and heart attacks

Smoking causes microinjury in the coronary arteries, accelerating blood clotting. In addition, smoking reduces cholesterol in the blood, i.e., the cholesterol that is good for the heart. When ‘HDL’ decreases, lousy cholesterol ‘LDL’ increases. That is, it gradually leads to a heart attack.

Heart attack symptoms

▪︎ Feeling of chest pain or pressure. Sometimes, neck, jaw, back, or hand pain may occur.

▪︎ Patients describe chest pain as a band pressing on the chest. However, diabetic patients may sometimes not report such pain as a heart attack.

▪︎ Chest pain may be accompanied by profuse sweating. This is a significant symptom, which indicates that a heart attack is in progress.

What to do to prevent heart attack

Heart disease is preventable, and it is possible to completely reverse the heart disease process just by living a controlled life. Avoid any stress. Amidst all the busyness of work life, some means of mental peace must be found. Do moderate physical activity or exercise and eat a nutritious diet low in fat.

Quitting smoking is very important. Just by quitting smoking, the risk of heart disease can be cut in half. Keep blood pressure under control and monitor regularly. Keeping blood glucose under control is crucial, especially for people with diabetes. Practice brisk walking regularly. Walk at least 45 minutes daily. Reduce the amount of calories in the daily diet. For this, take more vegetables and raw fruits. Avoid fatty foods.

Drugs used to treat heart attacks

Some drugs are given urgently to treat heart attacks. After the patient is out of danger, more drugs are given.

Medicines given after a heart attack work in two ways

  1. Medicines help repair the damage caused by a heart attack.
  2. Medicines help prevent complications after a heart attack.

The following drugs are used to reduce the complications and symptoms of the disease after a heart attack.

▪︎ Nitrates: Helps reduce chest pain or angina. This drug dilates the coronary arteries and increases blood flow. Increments oxygen supply to the heart muscle.

▪︎ Beta Blocker: This drug moderates the heart rate and controls blood pressure. Facilitates understanding of the heart’s functions. So, as it helps to reduce angina, it also helps to minimize post-heart attack complications.

▪︎ Aspirin and Clopidogrel: These drugs act as antiplatelets and thin the blood. This drug reduces the risk of heart attack by preventing blood clotting.

▪︎ Statins: Helps lower blood cholesterol. It also does other things that reduce the risk of heart attack.

To prevent future heart attacks, the lipid profile is recommended to be as follows:

Cholesterol < 200 mg/dL

LDL cholesterol < 70 dl

HDL < 40 dl

Triglycerides < 150 dl

Achieving above cholesterol levels requires diabetic control in addition to statins and the appropriate use of medications to control glucose.

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